From left to right: Alfred Blalock, Vivien Thomas, and Helen Taussig.

The first major antecedent is the Blalock-Taussig Shunt.

This was not a mecahnical antecedents so much as a procedure. It was invented by Blalock, Thomas and Taussig (pictured above).


Later, and more importantly, the Hufnagel’s Valve was invented.

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